March 15 - Recent Transplant News

Monday, March 18, 2013

Study: Colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species is associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome
Source: American Journal of Transplantation (subscription required)
Aspergillus colonization after lung transplantation may increase the risk for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a disease of small airways. Researchers hypothesized that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species would be associated with a greater risk of BOS, based upon an increased likelihood of deposition in small airways. Although other virulence traits besides conidia size may be important, it has been demonstrated in two large independent cohorts that colonization with small conidia Aspergillus species increases the risk of BOS and death. Read more

Vaccination in solid organ transplantation
Source: American Journal of Transplantation (subscription required)
Transplant candidates and recipients are at an increased risk of infectious complications of vaccine-preventable diseases. Every effort should be made to ensure that transplant candidates, their household members and healthcare workers have completed the full complement of recommended vaccinations prior to transplantation. Since the response to many vaccines is diminished in organ failure, transplant candidates should be immunized early in the course of their disease. Read more.

Vital signs: Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae
Source: CDC
Enterobacteriaceae are a family of bacteria that commonly cause infections in healthcare settings as well as in the community. Among Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to broad-spectrum carbapenem antimicrobials has been uncommon. Over the past decade, however, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been recognized in healthcare settings as a cause of difficult-to-treat infections associated with high mortality. Read more.

Contraceptive options for women with a history of solid-organ transplantation
Source: Transplantation
Women of reproductive age who have received a solid-organ transplant are at risk for unplanned pregnancy. Fertility can return as soon as one month after transplantation, and the baseline unplanned pregnancy rate in the United States is approximately 50 percent. Pregnancy, although not absolutely contraindicated in this population, carries risk greater than the general population and should be timed with regard to medication regimen and organ function. Read more.

Risk of waitlist mortality in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and bacterial cholangitis
Source: Liver Transplantation (subscription required)
Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are at increased risk for bacterial cholangitis because of biliary strictures and bile stasis. A subset of PSC patients suffer from repeated episodes of bacterial cholangitis, which can lead to frequent hospitalizations and impaired quality of life. Although waitlist candidates with PSC and bacterial cholangitis frequently receive exception points and/or are referred for living donor transplantation, the impact of bacterial cholangitis on waitlist mortality is unknown. Read more.

Cancer risk with alemtuzumab following kidney transplantation
Source: Clinical Transplantation
Alemtuzumab has been employed for induction therapy in kidney transplantation with low rates of acute rejection and excellent graft and patient survival. Antibody induction therapy has been linked to increased vulnerability to cancer. Data regarding malignancy rates with alemtuzumab are limited. Researchers studied 1,350 kidney transplant recipients (between 2001 and 2009) at the University of Pittsburgh Starzl Transplant Institute, for posttransplant de novo and recurrent malignancy, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, among patients receiving alemtuzumab, thymoglobulin and no induction therapies. Read more.

Neutropenic enterocolitis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: Incidence, risk factors and outcome
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a life-threatening complication occurring after intensive chemotherapy; however, no data are available on NE development after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The aim of a recent study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of NE after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous SCT (autoSCT). Read more.

Early treatment of depressive symptoms and long-term survival after liver transplantation
Source: American Journal of Transplantation (subscription required)
Adequate pharmacotherapy for depression within one year of liver transplantation was associated with improved survival rates in a recent study. Researchers evaluated 167 patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) because of alcohol-related liver disease between 1998 and 2003. Symptoms of depression were assessed via the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) every three months for the first year posttransplantation, and the adequacy of treatment with antidepressants among recipients was measured by the five-point Antidepressant Treatment History Form. Read more